Gentle Introduction To Lightning Network

*This article assumes the reader already has a basic understanding of the Bitcoin protocol, as well as how nodes, users and miners interact within it.

Bitcoin is extremely secure, but this initially came at a trade-off: It’s slow. On its base layer, there’s no getting around the immense computing power and 10-minute average block time — and that’s the point. Bitcoin’s maximum transactions per second (TPS) is about five, which immediately raises concerns about scalability that enable millions of users to take advantage of its use case: a permissionless, peer-to-peer currency.